Defines a new cast.
CREATE CAST (<sourcetype> AS <targettype>) WITH FUNCTION <funcname (argtypes)> [AS ASSIGNMENT | AS IMPLICIT] CREATE CAST (<sourcetype> AS <targettype>) WITHOUT FUNCTION [AS ASSIGNMENT | AS IMPLICIT]
CREATE CAST defines a new cast. A cast specifies how to perform a conversion between two data types. For example,
SELECT CAST(42 AS text);
converts the integer constant
42 to type
text by invoking a previously specified function, in this case
text(int4). If no suitable cast has been defined, the conversion fails.
Two types may be binary compatible, which means that they can be converted into one another without invoking any function. This requires that corresponding values use the same internal representation. For instance, the types
varchar are binary compatible.
By default, a cast can be invoked only by an explicit cast request, that is an explicit
CAST(x AS typename) or
x:: typename construct.
If the cast is marked
AS ASSIGNMENT then it can be invoked implicitly when assigning a value to a column of the target data type. For example, supposing that
foo.f1 is a column of type
INSERT INTO foo (f1) VALUES (42);
will be allowed if the cast from type integer to type
text is marked
AS ASSIGNMENT, otherwise not. The term assignment cast is typically used to describe this kind of cast.
If the cast is marked
AS IMPLICIT then it can be invoked implicitly in any context, whether by assignment or internally in an expression. The term implicit cast is typically used to describe this kind of cast. For example, since
SELECT 'The time is ' || now();
It is wise to be conservative about marking casts
AS IMPLICIT. An overabundance of implicit casting paths can cause HAWQ to choose surprising interpretations of commands, or to be unable to resolve commands at all because there are multiple possible interpretations. A good rule of thumb is to make a cast implicitly invokable only for information-preserving transformations between types in the same general type category. For example, the cast from
int4 can reasonably be implicit, but the cast from
int4 should probably be assignment-only. Cross-type-category casts, such as
int4, are best made explicit-only.
To be able to create a cast, you must own the source or the target data type. To create a binary-compatible cast, you must be superuser.
integer; it receives the type modifier associated with the destination type, or
-1if there is none. The third argument, if present, must be type
boolean; it receives
trueif the cast is an explicit cast,
falseotherwise. In some cases, the SQL specification demands different behaviors for explicit and implicit casts. This argument is supplied for functions that must implement such casts. Designing your own data types this way is not recommended. Ordinarily, a cast must have different source and target data types. However, declaring a cast with identical source and target types is allowed if it has a cast implementation function with more than one argument. This is used to represent type-specific length coercion functions in the system catalogs. The named function is used to coerce a value of the type to the type modifier value specified by its second argument. (Since the grammar presently permits only certain built-in data types to have type modifiers, this feature is of no use for user-defined target types.) When a cast has different source and target types and a function that takes more than one argument, it represents a conversion from one type to another and applying a length coercion in a single step. When no such entry is available, coercion to a type that uses a type modifier involves two steps, one to convert between data types and a second to apply the modifier.
For this release of HAWQ, user-defined functions used in a user-defined cast must be defined as
IMMUTABLE. Any compiled code (shared library files) for custom functions must be placed in the same location on every host in your HAWQ array (master and all segments). This location must also be in the
LD_LIBRARY_PATH so that the server can locate the files.
Remember that if you want to be able to convert types both ways, you need to declare casts both ways explicitly.
We recommend that you follow the convention of naming cast implementation functions after the target data type, as the built-in cast implementation functions are named. Many users are used to being able to cast data types using a function-style notation, that is
Create a cast from type
text to type
int4 using the function
int4(text). (This cast is already predefined in the system.):
CREATE CAST (text AS int4) WITH FUNCTION int4(text);
CREATE CAST command conforms to the SQL standard, except that SQL does not make provisions for binary-compatible types or extra arguments to implementation functions.
AS IMPLICIT is also a HAWQ extension.